Case Story

 

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Initiative Name:
Combating Drug Resistance in the Americas
Initiative Status:
Implementation phase / on-going
Adaptation, replication or scaling up of a previous initiative?
Yes
Modality of the initiative:
Triangular
Category(ies):
Disease Prevention and Control
Keywords:
antimicrobial resistance, resistencia antimicrobial, antibiotics, antibioticos, drug resistance

Geographic Identifiers

Region(s):

Countries Leading or Providing Technical Cooperation:
Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, USA , Uruguay, Venezuela,Argentina
Countries Demanding Technical Cooperation:
Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, USA , Uruguay, Venezuela,Argentina
Participating National Institutions, Organizations and/or Subregional Entities:
Argentina - Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas (INEI) ANLIS - “Dr Carlos G. Malbrán”, Bolivia- Instituto Nacional de Laboratorios de Salud (INLASA), Brazil - Coordinación Nacional de Laboratorios del Centro Nacional de Epidemiología (CGLAB/CENEPI ANVISA), Chile - Instituto de Salud Pública del Ministerio de Salud, Colombia - Instituto Nacional de Salud y Ministerio de Salud, Costa Rica - Centro Nacional de Referencia de Bacteriología del INCIENSA, Cuba - Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Pedro Kouri”, Ecuador - Hospital Vozandes, El Salvador - Laboratorio Central Dr. Max Bloch, Guatemala - Laboratorio Nacional de Salud, Honduras - Laboratorio Nacional de Vigilancia de la Salud, México - Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológica (InDRE), Nicaragua - Centro Nacional de Diagnóstico y Referencia (CNDR), Paraguay - Laboratorio Central de Salud Pública, Perú - Instituto Nacional de Salud, Uruguay - Departamento de Laboratorios de Salud Publica, Venezuela - Instituto Nacional de Higiene “Rafael Rangel” y Hospital Vargas, Argentina Centro de Referencia Supranacional - Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas (INEI) ANLIS - “Dr Carlos G. Malbrán”, Canada – National Microbiology Laboratory; CIPARS Winnipeg; Public Health Agency of Canada, USA - Centers for Disease Prevention and Control; National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System; American Society for Microbiology
Participating International and Multilateral Organizations:
Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), US Agency for International Development (USAID), Spanish Agency for International Cooperation and Development (AECID), Canadian Agency for International Development (CIDA)
Initiative Start Date:
1996
Initiative End Date:
ongoing

Initiative Cost/Budget and Sources of Funding

Initiative Total Cost/Budget: (in US$)
approx. $365,000 ($65,000 for annual meeting and $300,000 for network coordination)
Percentage Contributed by National Governments:
the above figures do not include in-country costs
Percentage Contributed by 3rd party sources:
USAID, AECID, CIDA have provided the necessary funds for the operational structure of the Network, publication of guidelines, technical meetings and direct technical support of the countries.

Initiative Description

Summary
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial medicine to which it was previously sensitive. AMR develops when a microorganism mutates or acquires a resistance gene, often due to the use of, particularly the misuse of, antimicrobial medicines (antibiotics, antivirals, and antimalarials). Resistant organisms (bacteria, viruses and some parasites) develop mechanisms which make them able to withstand attacks from antimicrobial medicines, which makes standard treatments ineffective, causing infections to persist and increasing the likelihood of their spreading to others.

AMR presents a major threat to patient care and disease control throughout the world. In the mid-1990s, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), designed and implemented a program aimed at strengthening microbiology laboratories in the Americas, to improve their ability to identify bacteria and test their susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. The program had two main objectives: 1) to improve surveillance of antimicrobial resistance; and 2) to improve the national capacity of countries in the Americas to address antimicrobial resistance.

An international network of microbiology laboratories was created through this Regional program, and continued horizontal cooperation between the countries involved has proven to be a sustainable and successful strategy to develop the capacity of national-level laboratories. This, in turn, has resulted in improved surveillance across the Region and an on-going and growing Community of Practice to address this critical public health issue.

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Additional Material:

Links and Additional Resources:

Contact Information:

Name of Contact Person:
Dr. Pilar Ramon-Pardo, PAHO Advisor on Antimicrobial Resistance
Organization:
Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)
Address:
525 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
Email:
ramonpap@paho.org
Website:
www.paho.org/Resistencia

Additional contact:
Jorge Matheu
Organization/Institution:
Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)
Email:
matheujo@paho.org